SAT Reading Practice Tests

65mins

You have 65 minutes to finish the task.Your response will be judged on the quality of your writing and on how well your response presentsthe key points presented in the lectures

00:65:00

Passage 1

This passage is adapted from Edith Wharton, Ethan Frome, originally published in 1911. Mattie Silver is Ethan’s household employee.

Mattie Silver had lived under Ethan’s roof for a year, and from early morning till they met at supper he had frequent chances of seeing her; but no moments in her company were comparable to those when, her arm in his, and her light step flying to keep time with his long stride, they walked back through the night to the farm. He had taken to the girl from the first day, when he had driven over to the Flats to meet her, and she had smiled and waved to him from the train, crying out, “You must be Ethan!” as she jumped down with her bundles, while he reflected, looking over her slight person: “She don’t look much on housework, but she ain’t a fretter, anyhow.” But it was not only that the coming to his house of a bit of hopeful young life was like the lighting of a fire on a cold hearth. The girl was more than the bright serviceable creature he had thought her. She had an eye to see and an ear to hear: he could show her things and tell her things, and taste the bliss of feeling that all he imparted left long reverberations and echoes he could wake at will.

It was during their night walks back to the farm that he felt most intensely the sweetness of this communion. He had always been more sensitive than the people about him to the appeal of natural beauty. His unfinished studies had given form to this sensibility and even in his unhappiest moments field and sky spoke to him with a deep and powerful persuasion. But hitherto the emotion had remained in him as a silent ache, veiling with sadness the beauty that evoked it. He did not even know whether any one else in the world felt as he did, or whether he was the sole victim of this mournful privilege. Then he learned that one other spirit had trembled with the same touch of wonder: that at his side, living under his roof and eating his bread, was a creature to whom he could say: “That’s Orion down yonder; the big fellow to the right is Aldebaran, and the bunch of little ones—like bees swarming—they’re the Pleiades . . .” or whom he could hold entranced before a ledge of granite thrusting up through the fern while he unrolled the huge panorama of the ice age, and the long dim stretches of succeeding time. The fact that admiration for his learning mingled with Mattie’s wonder at what he taught was not the least part of his pleasure. And there were other sensations, less definable but more exquisite, which drew them together with a shock of silent joy: the cold red of sunset behind winter hills, the flight of cloud flocks over slopes of golden stubble, or the intensely blue shadows of hemlocks on sunlit snow. When she said to him once: “It looks just as if it was painted!” it seemed to Ethan that the art of definition could go no farther, and that words had at last been found to utter his secret soul. . . .

As he stood in the darkness outside the church these memories came back with the poignancy of vanished things. Watching Mattie whirl down the floor from hand to hand he wondered how he could ever have thought that his dull talk interested her. To him, who was never gay but in her presence, her gaiety seemed plain proof of indifference. The face she lifted to her dancers was the same which, when she saw him, always looked like a window that has caught the sunset. He even noticed two or three gestures which, in his fatuity, he had thought she kept for him: a way of throwing her head back when she was amused, as if to taste her laugh before she let it out, and a trick of sinking her lids slowly when anything charmed or moved her.


Question 1.
Over the course of the passage, the main focus of the narrative shifts from the

A. reservations a character has about a person he has just met to a growing appreciation that character has of the person’s worth.
B. ambivalence a character feels about his sensitive nature to the character’s recognition of the advantages of having profound emotions.
C. intensity of feeling a character has for another person to the character’s concern that that intensity is not reciprocated.
D. value a character attaches to the wonders of the natural world to a rejection of that sort of beauty in favor of human artistry.

Question 2.
In the context of the passage, the author’s use of the phrase (follow link) “her light step flying to keep time with his long stride” (in the first sentence of paragraph 1) is primarily meant to convey the idea that

A. Ethan and Mattie share a powerful enthusiasm.
B. Matte strives to match the speed at which Ethan works.
C. Mattie and Ethan playfully compete with each other.
D. Ethan walks at a pace that frustrates Mattie.

Question 3.
The description in the first paragraph (follow link) indicates that what Ethan values most about Mattie is her

A. fitness for farm labor.
B. vivacious youth.
C. receptive nature.
D. freedom from worry.

Question 4.
Which choice provides the best evidence for the answer to
Question 3?

A. “Mattie Silver had lived under Ethan’s roof for a year, and from early morning till they met at supper he had frequent chances of seeing her; but no moments in her company were comparable to those when, her arm in his, and her light step flying to keep time with his long stride, they walked back through the night to the farm,” which is the first sentence of paragraph 1.
B. “He had taken to the girl from the first day, when he had driven over to the Flats to meet her, and she had smiled and waved to him from the train, crying out, ‘You must be Ethan!’ as she jumped down with her bundles, while he reflected, looking over her slight person: ‘She don’t look much on housework, but she ain’t a fretter, anyhow,’” which is the second sentence of paragraph 1.
C. “But it was not only that the coming to his house of a bit of hopeful young life was like the lighting of a fire on a cold hearth,” which is the third sentence of paragraph 1.
D. “She had an eye to see and an ear to hear: he could show her things and tell her things, and taste the bliss of feeling that all he imparted left long reverberations and echoes he could wake at will,” which is the fifth sentence of paragraph 1.

Question 5.
The author includes the descriptions (follow link) of the sunset, the clouds, and the hemlock shadows (in the eighth sentence of paragraph 2) primarily to

A. suggest the peacefulness of the natural world.
B. emphasize the acuteness of two characters’ sensations.
C. foreshadow the declining fortunes of two characters.
D. offer a sense of how fleeting time can be.


Passage 2

This passage is adapted from Richard Florida, The Great Reset. Copyright 2010 by Richard Florida.
In today’s idea-driven economy, the cost of time is what really matters. With the constant pressure to innovate, it makes little sense to waste countless collective hours commuting. So, the most efficient and productive regions are those in which people are thinking and working—not sitting in traffic.

The auto-dependent transportation system has reached its limit in most major cities and megaregions. Commuting by car is among the least efficient of all our activities—not to mention among the least enjoyable, according to detailed research by the Nobel Prize–winning economist Daniel Kahneman and his colleagues. Though one might think that the economic crisis beginning in 2007 would have reduced traffic (high unemployment means fewer workers traveling to and from work), the opposite has been true. Average commutes have lengthened, and congestion has gotten worse, if anything. The average commute rose in 2008 to 25.5 minutes, “erasing years of decreases to stand at the level of 2000, as people had to leave home earlier in the morning to pick up friends for their ride to work or to catch a bus or subway train,” according to the U. S. Census Bureau, which collects the figures. And those are average figures. Commutes are far longer in the big West Coast cities of Los Angeles and San Francisco and the East Coast cities of New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, and Washington, D. C. In many of these cities, gridlock has become the norm, not just at rush hour but all day, every day.

The costs are astounding. In Los Angeles, congestion eats up more than 485 million working hours a year; that’s seventy hours, or nearly two weeks, of full-time work per commuter. In D. C., the time cost of congestion is sixty-two hours per worker per year. In New York it’s forty-four hours. Average it out, and the time cost across America’s thirteen biggest city-regions is fifty-one hours per worker per year. Across the country, commuting wastes 4.2 billion hours of work time annually—nearly a full workweek for every commuter. The overall cost to the U. S. economy is nearly $90 billion when lost productivity and wasted fuel are taken into account. At the Martin Prosperity Institute, we calculate that every minute shaved off America’s commuting time is worth $19.5 billion in value added to the economy. The numbers add up fast: five minutes is worth $97.7 billion; ten minutes, $195 billion; fifteen minutes, $292 billion.

It’s ironic that so many people still believe the main remedy for traffic congestion is to build more roads and highways, which of course only makes the problem worse. New roads generate higher levels of “induced traffic,” that is, new roads just invite drivers to drive more and lure people who take mass transit back to their cars. Eventually, we end up with more clogged roads rather than a long term improvement in traffic flow.

The coming decades will likely see more intense clustering of jobs, innovation, and productivity in a smaller number of bigger cities and city regions. Some regions could end up bloated beyond the capacity of their infrastructure, while others struggle, their promise stymied by inadequate human or other resources.


Adapted from Adam Werbach, “The American Commuter Spends 38 Hours a Year Stuck in Traffic.” Copyright 2013 by The Atlantic.

Begin skippable figure description.
The figure is a bar graph titled “The Most Congested Cities in 2011: Yearly Hours of Delay per Automobile Commuter.” Data are presented in sixteen bars.
The vertical axis on the left of the figure has nine tick marks representing intervals of ten going upward from zero to eighty. Five of the tick marks are labeled zero, twenty, forty, sixty, and eighty and have gridlines extending horizontally to the right across the figure. The other four tick marks are not labeled and do not have gridlines extending from them.
The horizontal axis at the bottom of the figure is labeled with the names of fifteen city regions and one category designated “Very Large City Average,” which is set in bold font in contrast to the standard font of the other fifteen labels. Bars extending upward indicate the yearly hours of delay per automobile commuter for each of the sixteen designations, and they are arranged in descending order from left to right. The bar for “Very Large City Average” is black, and the other fifteen bars are gray.
The data are as follows, where all values are approximate.
Washington, D. C.: 68
Los Angeles: 61
San Francisco: 61
New York City: 59
Boston: 54
Houston: 52
Very Large City Average: 52
Atlanta: 50
Chicago: 50
Philadelphia: 48
Seattle: 48
Miami: 46
Dallas–Fort Worth: 44
Detroit: 40
San Diego: 37
Phoenix: 35


Question 6.
The passage most strongly suggests that researchers at the Martin Prosperity Institute share which assumption?
A. Employees who work from home are more valuable to their employers than employees who commute.
B. Employees whose commutes are shortened will use the time saved to do additional productive work for their employers.
C. Employees can conduct business activities, such as composing memos or joining conference calls, while commuting.
D. Employees who have lengthy commutes tend to make more money than employees who have shorter commutes.

Question 7.
As used in the first sentence of paragraph 5 (follow link), “intense” most nearly means
A. emotional.
B. concentrated.
C. brilliant.
D. determined.

Question 8.
Which claim about traffic congestion is supported by the graph (follow link)?
A. New York City commuters spend less time annually delayed by traffic congestion than the average for very large cities.
B. Los Angeles commuters are delayed more hours annually by traffic congestion than are commuters in Washington, D. C.
C. Commuters in Washington, D. C., face greater delays annually due to traffic congestion than do commuters in New York City.
D. Commuters in Detroit spend more time delayed annually by traffic congestion than do commuters in Houston, Atlanta, and Chicago.

Passage 3

This passage is adapted from Ed Yong, “Turtles Use the Earth’s Magnetic Field as Global G P S.” Copyright 2011 by Kalmbach Publishing Company.

In 1996, a loggerhead turtle called Adelita swam across 9,000 miles from Mexico to Japan, crossing the entire Pacific on her way. Wallace J. Nichols tracked this epic journey with a satellite tag. But Adelita herself had no such technology at her disposal. How did she steer a route across two oceans to find her destination?

Nathan Putman has the answer. By testing hatchling turtles in a special tank, he has found that they can use the Earth’s magnetic field as their own Global Positioning System (G P S). By sensing the field, they can work out both their latitude and longitude and head in the right direction.

Putman works in the lab of Ken Lohmann, who has been studying the magnetic abilities of loggerheads for over 20 years. In his lab at the University of North Carolina, Lohmann places hatchlings in a large water tank surrounded by a large grid of electromagnetic coils. In 1991, he found that the babies started swimming in the opposite direction if he used the coils to reverse the direction of the magnetic field around them. They could use the field as a compass to get their bearing.

Later, Lohmann showed that they can also use the magnetic field to work out their position. For them, this is literally a matter of life or death. Hatchlings born off the sea coast of Florida spend their early lives in the North Atlantic gyre, a warm current that circles between North America and Africa. If they’re swept towards the cold waters outside the gyre, they die. Their magnetic sense keeps them safe.
Using his coil-surrounded tank, Lohmann could mimic the magnetic field at different parts of the Earth’s surface. If he simulated the field at the northern edge of the gyre, the hatchlings swam southwards. If he simulated the field at the gyre’s southern edge, the turtles swam west northwest. These experiments showed that the turtles can use their magnetic sense to work out their latitude—their position on a north south axis. Now, Putman has shown that they can also determine their longitude—their position on an east west axis.

He tweaked his magnetic tanks to simulate the fields in two positions with the same latitude at opposite ends of the Atlantic. If the field simulated the west Atlantic near Puerto Rico, the turtles swam northeast. If the field matched that on the east Atlantic near the Cape Verde Islands, the turtles swam southwest. In the wild, both headings would keep them within the safe, warm embrace of the North Atlantic gyre.
Before now, we knew that several animal migrants, from loggerheads to reed warblers to sparrows, had some way of working out longitude, but no one knew how. By keeping the turtles in the same conditions, with only the magnetic fields around them changing, Putman clearly showed that they can use these fields to find their way. In the wild, they might well also use other landmarks like the position of the sea, sun and stars.

Putman thinks that the turtles work out their position using two features of the Earth’s magnetic field that change over its surface. They can sense the field’s inclination, or the angle at which it dips towards the surface. At the poles, this angle is roughly 90 degrees and at the equator, it’s roughly zero degrees. They can also sense its intensity, which is strongest near the poles and weakest near the Equator. Different parts of the world have unique combinations of these two variables. Neither corresponds directly to either latitude or longitude, but together, they provide a “magnetic signature” that tells the turtle where it is.

Orientation of Hatchling Loggerheads Tested in Magnetic Fields

Adapted from Nathan Putman, Courtney Endres, Catherine Lohmann, and Kenneth Lohmann, “Longitude Perception and Bicoordinate Magnetic Maps in Sea Turtles.” Copyright 2011 by Elsevier Incorporated.

Orientation of hatchling loggerheads tested in a magnetic field that simulates a position at the west side of the Atlantic near Puerto Rico (left) and a position at the east side of the Atlantic near the Cape Verde Islands (right). The arrow in each circle indicates the mean direction that the group of hatchlings swam. Data are plotted relative to geographic north (north equals zero degrees).

The figure presents two circles next to each other. The circle on the left is labeled “West Atlantic (Puerto Rico).” The circle on the right is labeled “East Atlantic (Cape Verde Islands).”
Each circle has 36 tick marks spaced equally around its edge. Proceeding clockwise from the tick mark at the highest point of each circle, every third tick mark is labeled from zero degrees to 330 degrees in increments of 30 degrees.

An arrow is drawn from the center to the perimeter of each circle. The arrow in the circle on the left, for West Atlantic (Puerto Rico), points approximately to the tick mark for 50 degrees. The arrow in the circle on the right, for East Atlantic (Cape Verde Islands), points between the tick marks for 210 degrees and 220 degrees.


Question 9.
The passage most strongly suggests that Adelita used which of the following to navigate her 9,000 mile journey?
A. The current of the North Atlantic gyre
B. Cues from electromagnetic coils designed by Putman and Lohmann
C. The inclination and intensity of Earth’s magnetic field
D. A simulated “magnetic signature” configured by Lohmann

Question 10.
Which choice provides the best evidence for the answer to question 9?
A. “In 1996, a loggerhead turtle called Adelita swam across 9,000 miles from Mexico to Japan, crossing the entire Pacific on her way,” which is the first sentence of paragraph 1.
B. “Using his coil-surrounded tank, Lohmann could mimic the magnetic field at different parts of the Earth’s surface,” which is the first sentence of paragraph 5.
C. “In the wild, they might well also use other landmarks like the position of the sea, sun and stars,” which is the third sentence of paragraph 7.
D. “Neither corresponds directly to either latitude or longitude, but together, they provide a ‘magnetic signature’ that tells the turtle where it is,” which is the sixth sentence of paragraph 8.

Question 11.
As used in the second sentence of paragraph 1 (follow link), “tracked” most nearly means
A. searched for.
B. traveled over.
C. followed.
D. hunted.

Question 12.
Based on the passage, which choice best describes the relationship between Putman’s and Lohmann’s research?
A. Putman’s research contradicts Lohmann’s.
B. Putman’s research builds on Lohmann’s.
C. Lohmann’s research confirms Putman’s.
D. Lohmann’s research corrects Putman’s.

Question 13.
The author refers to reed warblers and sparrows (follow link to the first sentence of paragraph 7) primarily to
A. contrast the loggerhead turtle’s migration patterns with those of other species.
B. provide examples of species that share one of the loggerhead turtle’s abilities.
C. suggest that most animal species possess some ability to navigate long distances.
D. illustrate some ways in which the ability to navigate long distances can help a species.

Question 14.
It can reasonably be inferred from the passage and graphic (follow link) that if scientists adjusted the coils to reverse the magnetic field simulating that in the East Atlantic (Cape Verde Islands), the hatchlings would most likely swim in which direction?
A. Northwest
B. Northeast
C. Southeast
D. Southwest

Passage 4

This passage is adapted from a speech delivered by Congresswoman Barbara Jordan of Texas on July 25, 1974, as a member of the Judiciary Committee of the United States House of Representatives. In the passage, Jordan discusses how and when a United States president may be impeached, or charged with serious offenses, while in office. Jordan’s speech was delivered in the context of impeachment hearings against then president Richard M. Nixon.

Today, I am an inquisitor. An hyperbole would not be fictional and would not overstate the solemnness that I feel right now. My faith in the Constitution is whole; it is complete; it is total. And I am not going to sit here and be an idle spectator to the diminution, the subversion, the destruction, of the Constitution.

“Who can so properly be the inquisitors for the nation as the representatives of the nation themselves?” “The subjects of its jurisdiction are those offenses which proceed from the misconduct of public men.”* (Follow link to endnote.) And that’s what we’re talking about. In other words, [the jurisdiction comes] from the abuse or violation of some public trust.

It is wrong, I suggest, it is a misreading of the Constitution for any member here to assert that for a member to vote for an article of impeachment means that that member must be convinced that the President should be removed from office. The Constitution doesn’t say that. The powers relating to impeachment are an essential check in the hands of the body of the legislature against and upon the encroachments of the executive. The division between the two branches of the legislature, the House and the Senate, assigning to the one the right to accuse and to the other the right to judge—the framers of this Constitution were very astute. They did not make the accusers and the judges . . . the same person.

We know the nature of impeachment. We’ve been talking about it a while now. It is chiefly designed for the President and his high ministers to somehow be called into account. It is designed to “bridle” the executive if he engages in excesses. “It is designed as a method of national inquest into the conduct of public men.”* (Follow link to endnote.) The framers confided in the Congress the power, if need be, to remove the President in order to strike a delicate balance between a President swollen with power and grown tyrannical, and preservation of the independence of the executive.

The nature of impeachment: a narrowly channeled exception to the separation of powers maxim. The Federal Convention of 1787 said that. It limited impeachment to high crimes and misdemeanors, and discounted and opposed the term “maladministration.” “It is to be used only for great misdemeanors,” so it was said in the North Carolina ratification convention. And in the Virginia ratification convention: “We do not trust our liberty to a particular branch. We need one branch to check the other.”

. . . The North Carolina ratification convention: “No one need be afraid that officers who commit oppression will pass with immunity.” “Prosecutions of impeachments will seldom fail to agitate the passions of the whole community,” said Hamilton in the Federalist Papers, number 65. “We divide into parties more or less friendly or inimical to the accused.”* (Follow link to endnote.) I do not mean political parties in that sense.

The drawing of political lines goes to the motivation behind impeachment; but impeachment must proceed within the confines of the constitutional term “high crime[s] and misdemeanors.” Of the impeachment process, it was Woodrow Wilson who said that “Nothing short of the grossest offenses against the plain law of the land will suffice to give them speed and effectiveness. Indignation so great as to overgrow party interest may secure a conviction; but nothing else can.”

Common sense would be revolted if we engaged upon this process for petty reasons. Congress has a lot to do: appropriations, tax reform, health insurance, campaign finance reform, housing, environmental protection, energy sufficiency, mass transportation. Pettiness cannot be allowed to stand in the face of such overwhelming problems. So today we’re not being petty. We’re trying to be big, because the task we have before us is a big one.


Question 15.
The stance Jordan takes in the passage is best described as that of
A. an idealist setting forth principles.
B. an advocate seeking a compromise position.
C. an observer striving for neutrality.
D. a scholar researching a historical controversy.

Question 16.
The main rhetorical effect of the series of three phrases in the fourth sentence of paragraph 1 (follow “the diminution, the subversion, the destruction”) is to
A. convey with increasing intensity the seriousness of the threat Jordan sees to the Constitution.
B. clarify that Jordan believes the Constitution was first weakened, then sabotaged, then broken.
C. indicate that Jordan thinks the Constitution is prone to failure in three distinct ways.
D. propose a three-part agenda for rescuing the Constitution from the current crisis.

Question 17.
As used in the first sentence of paragraph 5 (follow link), “channeled” most nearly means
A. worn.
B. sent.
C. constrained
D. siphoned.

Question 18.
In the second through fourth sentences of paragraph 6 (follow link), what is the most likely reason Jordan draws a distinction between two types of “parties”?
A. To counter the suggestion that impeachment is or should be about partisan politics
B. To disagree with Hamilton’s claim that impeachment proceedings excite passions
C. To contend that Hamilton was too timid in his support for the concept of impeachment
D. To argue that impeachment cases are decided more on the basis of politics than on justice

Question 19.
Which choice provides the best evidence for the answer to the previous
Question?

A. “It is wrong, I suggest, it is a misreading of the Constitution for any member here to assert that for a member to vote for an article of impeachment means that that member must be convinced that the President should be removed from office,” which is the first sentence of paragraph 3.
B. “The division between the two branches of the legislature, the House and the Senate, assigning to the one the right to accuse and to the other the right to judge—the framers of this Constitution were very astute,” which is the fourth sentence of paragraph 3.
C. “The drawing of political lines goes to the motivation behind impeachment; but impeachment must proceed within the confines of the constitutional term ‘high crime[s] and misdemeanors,’” which is the first sentence of paragraph 7.
D. “Congress has a lot to do: appropriations, tax reform, health insurance, campaign finance reform, housing, environmental protection, energy sufficiency, mass transportation,” which is the second sentence of paragraph 8.

Passage 5

Passage 5 is adapted from Susan Milius, “A Different Kind of Smart.” Copyright 2013 by Science News. Passage 2 is adapted from Bernd Heinrich, Mind of the Raven: Investigations and Adventures with Wolf-Birds. Copyright 2007 by Bernd Heinrich.

In 1894, British psychologist C. Lloyd Morgan published what’s called Morgan’s canon, the principle that suggestions of humanlike mental processes behind an animal’s behavior should be rejected if a simpler explanation will do.
Still, people seem to maintain certain expectations, especially when it comes to birds and mammals. “We somehow want to prove they are as ‘smart’ as people,” zoologist Sara Shettleworth says. We want a bird that masters a vexing problem to be employing human style insight.
New Caledonian crows face the high end of these expectations, as possibly the second best toolmakers on the planet.

Their tools are hooked sticks or strips made from spike edged leaves, and they use them in the wild to winkle grubs out of crevices. Researcher Russell Gray first saw the process on a cold morning in a mountain forest in New Caledonia, an island chain east of Australia. Over the course of days, he and crow researcher Gavin Hunt had gotten wild crows used to finding meat tidbits in holes in a log. Once the birds were checking the log reliably, the researchers placed a spiky tropical pandanus plant beside the log and hid behind a blind.

A crow arrived. It hopped onto the pandanus plant, grabbed the spiked edge of one of the long straplike leaves and began a series of ripping motions. Instead of just tearing away one long strip, the bird ripped and nipped in a sequence to create a slanting stair step edge on a leaf segment with a narrow point and a wide base. The process took only seconds. Then the bird dipped the narrow end of its leaf strip into a hole in the log, fished up the meat with the leaf edge spikes, swallowed its prize and flew off.

“That was my ‘oh wow’ moment,” Gray says. After the crow had vanished, he picked up the tool the bird had left behind. “I had a go, and I couldn’t do it,” he recalls. Fishing the meat out was tricky. It turned out that Gray was moving the leaf shard too forcefully instead of gently stroking the spines against the treat.

The crow’s deft physical manipulation was what inspired Gray and Auckland colleague Alex Taylor to test other wild crows to see if they employed the seemingly insightful string pulling solutions that some ravens, kea parrots and other brainiac birds are known to employ. Three of four crows passed that test on the first try.

For one month after they left the nest, I led my four young ravens at least once and sometimes several times a day on thirty minute walks. During these walks, I wrote down everything in their environment they pecked at. In the first sessions, I tried to be teacher. I touched specific objects—sticks, moss, rocks—and nothing that I touched remained untouched by them. They came to investigate what I had investigated, leading me to assume that young birds are aided in learning to identify food from the parents’ example. They also, however, contacted almost everything else that lay directly in their own paths. They soon became more independent by taking their own routes near mine. Even while walking along on their own, they pulled at leaves, grass stems, flowers, bark, pine needles, seeds, cones, clods of earth, and other objects they encountered. I wrote all this down, converting it to numbers. After they were thoroughly familiar with the background objects in these woods and started to ignore them, I seeded the path we would later walk together with objects they had never before encountered. Some of these were conspicuous food items: raspberries, dead meal worm beetles, and cooked corn kernels. Others were conspicuous and inedible: pebbles, glass chips, red winterberries. Still others were such highly cryptic foods as encased caddisfly larvae and moth cocoons. The results were dramatic.
The four young birds on our daily walks contacted all new objects preferentially. They picked them out at a rate of up to tens of thousands of times greater than background or previously contacted objects. The main initial criterion for pecking or picking anything up was its novelty. In subsequent trials, when the previously novel items were edible, they became preferred and the inedible objects became “background” items, just like the leaves, grass, and pebbles, even if they were highly conspicuous. These experiments showed that ravens’ curiosity ensures exposure to all or almost all items in the environment.
In 1894, British psychologist C. Lloyd Morgan published what’s called Morgan’s canon, the principle that suggestions of humanlike mental processes behind an animal’s behavior should be rejected if a simpler explanation will do.

Still, people seem to maintain certain expectations, especially when it comes to birds and mammals. “We somehow want to prove they are as ‘smart’ as people,” zoologist Sara Shettleworth says. We want a bird that masters a vexing problem to be employing human style insight. New Caledonian crows face the high end of these expectations, as possibly the second best toolmakers on the planet.

Their tools are hooked sticks or strips made from spike edged leaves, and they use them in the wild to winkle grubs out of crevices. Researcher Russell Gray first saw the process on a cold morning in a mountain forest in New Caledonia, an island chain east of Australia. Over the course of days, he and crow researcher Gavin Hunt had gotten wild crows used to finding meat tidbits in holes in a log. Once the birds were checking the log reliably, the researchers placed a spiky tropical pandanus plant beside the log and hid behind a blind.

A crow arrived. It hopped onto the pandanus plant, grabbed the spiked edge of one of the long straplike leaves and began a series of ripping motions. Instead of just tearing away one long strip, the bird ripped and nipped in a sequence to create a slanting stair step edge on a leaf segment with a narrow point and a wide base. The process took only seconds. Then the bird dipped the narrow end of its leaf strip into a hole in the log, fished up the meat with the leaf edge spikes, swallowed its prize and flew off.

“That was my ‘oh wow’ moment,” Gray says. After the crow had vanished, he picked up the tool the bird had left behind. “I had a go, and I couldn’t do it,” he recalls. Fishing the meat out was tricky. It turned out that Gray was moving the leaf shard too forcefully instead of gently stroking the spines against the treat. The crow’s deft physical manipulation was what inspired Gray and Auckland colleague Alex Taylor to test other wild crows to see if they employed the seemingly insightful string pulling solutions that some ravens, kea parrots and other brainiac birds are known to employ. Three of four crows passed that test on the first try.

For one month after they left the nest, I led my four young ravens at least once and sometimes several times a day on thirty minute walks. During these walks, I wrote down everything in their environment they pecked at. In the first sessions, I tried to be teacher. I touched specific objects—sticks, moss, rocks—and nothing that I touched remained untouched by them. They came to investigate what I had investigated, leading me to assume that young birds are aided in learning to identify food from the parents’ example. They also, however, contacted almost everything else that lay directly in their own paths. They soon became more independent by taking their own routes near mine. Even while walking along on their own, they pulled at leaves, grass stems, flowers, bark, pine needles, seeds, cones, clods of earth, and other objects they encountered. I wrote all this down, converting it to numbers. After they were thoroughly familiar with the background objects in these woods and started to ignore them, I seeded the path we would later walk together with objects they had never before encountered. Some of these were conspicuous food items: raspberries, dead meal worm beetles, and cooked corn kernels. Others were conspicuous and inedible: pebbles, glass chips, red winterberries. Still others were such highly cryptic foods as encased caddisfly larvae and moth cocoons. The results were dramatic.

The four young birds on our daily walks contacted all new objects preferentially. They picked them out at a rate of up to tens of thousands of times greater than background or previously contacted objects. The main initial criterion for pecking or picking anything up was its novelty. In subsequent trials, when the previously novel items were edible, they became preferred and the inedible objects became “background” items, just like the leaves, grass, and pebbles, even if they were highly conspicuous. These experiments showed that ravens’ curiosity ensures exposure to all or almost all items in the environment.


Question 20.
Within Passage 1 (follow link), the main purpose of the first two paragraphs (follow links to paragraph 1 and paragraph 2) is to
A. offer historical background in order to question the uniqueness of two researchers’ findings.
B. offer interpretive context in order to frame the discussion of an experiment and its results.
C. introduce a scientific principle in order to show how an experiment’s outcomes validated that principle.
D. present seemingly contradictory stances in order to show how they can be reconciled empirically.

Question 21.
According to the experiment described in Passage 2 (follow link), whether the author’s ravens continued to show interest in a formerly new object was dictated primarily by whether that object was
A. edible.
B. plentiful.
C. conspicuous.
D. natural.

Question 22.
The crows in Passage 1 (follow link) and the ravens in Passage 2 (follow link) shared which trait?

A. They modified their behavior in response to changes in their environment.
B. They formed a strong bond with the humans who were observing them.
C. They manufactured useful tools for finding and accessing food.
D. They mimicked the actions they saw performed around them.

Question 23.
One difference between the experiments described in the two passages is that unlike the researchers discussed in Passage 1 (follow link), the author of Passage 2 (follow link)
A. presented the birds with a problem to solve.
B. intentionally made the birds aware of his presence.
C. consciously manipulated the birds’ surroundings.
D. tested the birds’ tool using abilities.

Question 24.
Is the main conclusion presented by the author of Passage 2 (follow link) consistent with Morgan’s canon, as described in Passage 1 (follow link)?
A. Yes, because the conclusion proposes that the ravens’ behavior is a product of environmental factors.
B. Yes, because the conclusion offers a satisfyingly simple explanation of the ravens’ behavior.
C. No, because the conclusion suggests that the ravens exhibit complex behavior patterns.
D. No, because the conclusion implies that a humanlike quality motivates the ravens’ behavior.

Passage 6

Mr. Harding was not a happy man as he walked down the palace pathway, and stepped out into the close. His position and pleasant house were a second time gone from him; but that he could endure. He had been schooled and insulted by a man young enough to be his son; but that he could put up with. He could even draw from the very injuries which had been inflicted on him some of that consolation which, we may believe, martyrs always receive from the injustice of their own sufferings. He had admitted to his daughter that he wanted the comfort of his old home, and yet he could have returned to his lodgings in the High Street, if not with exultation, at least with satisfaction, had that been all. But the venom of the chaplain's harangue had worked into his blood, and sapped the life of his sweet contentment.

'New men are carrying out new measures, and are carting away the useless rubbish of past centuries!' What cruel words these had been- and how often are they now used with all the heartless cruelty of a Slope! A man is sufficiently condemned if it can only be shown that either in politics or religion he does not belong to some new school established within the last score of years. He may then regard himself as rubbish and expect to be carted away. A man is nothing now unless he has within him a full appreciation of the new era; an era in which it would seem that neither honesty nor truth is very desirable, but in which success is the only touchstone of merit. We must laugh at everything that is established. Let the joke be ever so bad, ever so untrue to the real principles of joking; nevertheless we must laugh - or else beware the cart. We must talk, think, and live up to the spirit of the times, or else we are nought. New men and new measures, long credit and few scruples, great success or wonderful ruin, such are now the tastes of Englishmen who know how to live! Alas, alas! Under such circumstances Mr. Harding could not but feel that he was an Englishman who did not know how to live. This new doctrine of Mr. Slope and the rubbish cart sadly disturbed his equanimity.

'The same thing is going on throughout the whole country!' 'Work is now required from every man who receives wages!' And had he been living all his life receiving wages, and doing no work? Had he in truth so lived as to be now in his old age justly reckoned as rubbish fit only to be hidden away in some huge dust-hole? The school of men to whom he professes to belong, the Grantlys, the Gwynnes, are afflicted with no such self-accusations as these which troubled Mr. Harding. They, as a rule, are as satisfied with the wisdom and propriety of their own conduct as can be any Mr. Slope, or any Bishop with his own. But, unfortunately for himself, Mr. Harding had little of this self-reliance. When he heard himself designated as rubbish by the Slopes of the world, he had no other resource than to make inquiry within his own bosom as to the truth of the designation. Alas, alas! the evidence seemed generally to go against him.
Adapted from: The Warden, Anthony Trollope (1855)


Question 25.
The main cause of Mr. Harding's unhappiness as he leaves the Bishop's Palace is
A. the loss of his house
B. the loss of his position
C. the need to live with his daughter
D. the thought-provoking words of the chaplain
E. the injustice he has suffered

Question 26.
It can be inferred that Slope is
A. the chaplain .
B. the Bishop .
C. a foreigner .
D. a politician .
E. a young writer

Question 27.
The word equanimity (line 41) most nearly means

A. status
B. happiness
C. justice
D. complacency
E. composure

Question 28.
4. It can be inferred that Mr Harding is especially disturbed because he
A. does not feel himself to be old
B. is offended by the young mans impertinence
C. believes no one else feels as he does
D. believe his life's work has been worthwhile
E. feels there may be some truth in regarding himself as rubbish

Question 29.
Mr. Harding differs from others of his school (line 49) because they
A. do not believe Slope
B. have never been called rubbish
C. are sure their conduct is irreproachable
D. have already examined their consciences
E. feel that Mr. Harding is not one of them

Question 30.
The tone of the sentence 'New men....live' (lines 34-37) is
A. objective
B. ironic
C. derogatory
D. expository
E. ambivalent

Question 31.
The first two sentences of paragraph 3 relate the
A. words of Mr. Slope
B. thoughts of Mr. Harding
C. view of the old school of men
D. viewpoint of the author
E. opinions of all young men


Passage 7

I have yet to meet a poetry-lover under thirty who was not an introvert, or an introvert who was not unhappy in adolescence. At school, particularly, maybe, if, as in my own case, it is a boarding school, he sees the extrovert successful, happy, and good and himself unpopular or neglected; and what is hardest to bear is not unpopularity, but the consciousness that it is deserved, that he is grubby and inferior and frightened and dull. Knowing no other kind of society than the contingent, he imagines that this arrangement is part of the eternal scheme of things, that he is doomed to a life of failure and envy. It is not till he grows up, till years later he runs across the heroes of his school days and finds them grown commonplace and sterile, that he realizes that the introvert is the lucky one, the best adapted to an industrial civilization the collective values of which are so infantile that he alone can grow, who has educated his fantasies and learned how to draw upon the resources of his inner life. At the time, however, his adolescence is unpleasant enough. Unable to imagine a society in which he would feel at home, he turns away from the human to the nonhuman: homesick he will seek, not his mother, but mountains or autumn woods, and the growing life within him will express itself in a devotion to music and thoughts upon mutability and death. Art for him will be something infinitely precious, pessimistic, and hostile to life. If it speaks of love it must be love frustrated, for all success seems to him noisy and vulgar; if it moralizes, it must counsel a stoic resignation, for the world he knows is well content with itself and will not change.

Deep as first love and wild with all regret, O death in life, the days that are no more.

Now more than ever seems it sweet to die To cease upon the midnight with no pain.

That to the adolescent is the authentic poetic note and whoever is the first in his life to strike it, whether Tennyson, Keats, Swinburne, Housman or another, awakens a passion of imitation and an affectation which no subsequent refinement or sophistication of his taste can entirely destroy. In my own case it was Hardy in the summer of 1923; for more than a year I read no one else and I do not think that I was ever without one volume or another or the beautifully produced Wessex edition in my hands: I smuggled them into class, carried them about on Sunday walks, and took them up to the dormitory to read in the early morning, though they were far too unwieldy to be read in bed with comfort. In the autumn of 1924 there was a palace revolution after which he had to share his kingdom with Edward Thomas, until finally they were both defeated by Elliot at the battle of Oxford in 1926. Besides serving as the archetype of the Poetic, Hardy was also an expression of the contemporary scene. He was both my Keats and my Sandburg. To begin with, he looked like my father: that broad unpampered moustache, bald forehead, and deeply lined sympathetic face belonged to that other world of feeling and sensation. Here was a writer whose emotions, if sometimes monotonous and sentimental in expression, would be deeper and more faithful than my own, and whose attachment to the earth would be more secure and observant.

Adapted from an article written by W H Auden

Question 32
According to the author, poetry lovers under thirty generally

A. have a strong sense of their own inferiority during school years
B. are always products of boarding schools
C. have an unhappy home life
D. are outgoing as adolescents
E. long to return to early childhood

Question 33.
The author's main purpose is apparently to

A. describe what lead to his being an introvert
B. explore the reasons for his early taste in poetry
C. explain what lead to his becoming a poet
D. account for the unhappy adolescent's aesthetic sense
E. criticize a system that makes young people feel unhappy and neglected

Question 34.
The word �contingent� (line 8) most nearly means

A. juvenile
B. scholarly
C. competitive
D. immediate
E. intelligent

Question 35.
The author regards the introverted adolescent as ultimately lucky because he has

A. become financially successful in an industrialized society
B. ceased to envy others
C. cultivated inner resources that he will need in modern society
D. a better general education than those who were envied in school
E. learned to appreciate nature

Question 36.
To the adolescent the �authentic poetic note� is one of

A. pain and affirmation
B. hostility and vulgarity
C. contentment and peace
D. purity and love
E. melancholy and acceptance

Question 37.
It can be inferred that, for the author, the poetry of Hardy is

A. something with which he is not entirely comfortable
B. a temporary interest soon supplanted by other poetry
C. a secret obsession that he is reluctant to confess
D. his first poetic love that time has not entirely erased
E. a childlike passion

Question 38.
The author uses all of the following to make his point except

A. metaphor
B. personal experience
C. generalization
D. classical allusions
E. comparison

Question 39.
The poetry quoted (lines 28-34) is most likely included as

A. extracts from the author's own poetry
B. extracts from Hardy's poetry
C. examples of poetry that appeals to the unhappy adolescent
D. the type of poetry much admired by all poetry lovers
E. examples of schoolboy poetry

Question 40.
It can be inferred that Edward Thomas

A. was once held in high esteem by the author
B. was a better poet than Hardy
C. was writing in 1924
D. had views opposed to Eliot
E. wrote poetry similar to that of Hardy

Question 41.
The author mentions Carl Sandburg (line 52) as

A. an example of a modern poet
B. an example of a traditional figure
C. having a poetic appearance
D. a poet to appeal to young people
E. resembling his father

Question 42.
The author qualifies his appreciation of Hardy by pointing out that Hardy's poetic techniques were

A. sometimes unmoving
B. not always deeply felt
C. occasionally lacking in variety
D. always emotional
E. irrelevant to certain readers

Question 43.
The author feels that Hardy's physical appearance suggested

A. deep and lasting feelings
B. paternal values
C. careworn old age
D. a contemporary writer
E. fatherly concern

best ielts coaching centers in hyderabad ameerpet best ielts coaching centers in hyderabad reviews| best ielts coaching centers in hyderabad yahoo answers| best ielts coaching centres in Hyderabad| best ielts coaching in Hyderabad| best ielts coaching in hyderabad ameerpet| best ielts coaching in hyderabad dilsukhnagar| best ielts coaching in hyderabad kukatpally| best ielts coaching institutes in Hyderabad| best institutes for ielts coaching in Hyderabad| coaching centers in hyderabad for ielts| coaching centres for ielts in Hyderabad| coaching for ielts in Hyderabad| cost of ielts coaching in Hyderabad| fee for ielts coaching in Hyderabad| free ielts coaching centers in Hyderabad| free ielts coaching centres in Hyderabad| free ielts coaching in Hyderabad| good ielts coaching center in Hyderabad| gre and ielts coaching in Hyderabad| gre toefl ielts coaching centers in Hyderabad| idp ielts coaching centers in Hyderabad| ielts and toefl coaching centres in Hyderabad| ielts and toefl coaching in Hyderabad| ielts coaching centers in hyderabad abids| ielts coaching centers in hyderabad ameerpet| ielts coaching centers in hyderabad banjara hills| ielts coaching centers in hyderabad dilsukhnagar| ielts coaching centers in hyderabad ecil| ielts coaching centers in hyderabad himayat nagar| ielts coaching centers in hyderabad kukatpally| ielts coaching centers in hyderabad madhapur| ielts coaching centers in hyderabad mehdipatnam| ielts coaching centers in hyderabad panjagutta| ielts coaching centers in hyderabad reviews| ielts coaching centers in hyderabad secunderabad| ielts coaching centers in hyderabad tarnaka| ielts coaching centers in sr nagar Hyderabad| ielts coaching centre Hyderabad| ielts coaching centre in hyderabad abids| ielts coaching centre in hyderabad gachibowli| ielts coaching centres in mehdipatnam Hyderabad| ielts coaching cost in Hyderabad| ielts coaching in Hyderabad| ielts coaching in hyderabad abids| ielts coaching in hyderabad alwal| ielts coaching in hyderabad ameerpet| ielts coaching in hyderabad british council| ielts coaching in hyderabad chandanagar| ielts coaching in hyderabad ecil| ielts coaching in hyderabad fee| ielts coaching in hyderabad fees| ielts coaching in hyderabad gachibowli| ielts coaching in hyderabad himayat nagar| ielts coaching in hyderabad india| ielts coaching in hyderabad justdial| ielts coaching in hyderabad kphb| ielts coaching in hyderabad kukatpally| ielts coaching in hyderabad madhapur| ielts coaching in hyderabad malakpet| ielts coaching in yderabad mehdipatnam| ielts coaching in hyderabad miyapur| ielts coaching in hyderabad panjagutta| ielts coaching in hyderabad tarnaka| ielts coaching in hyderabad uppal| ielts coaching in hyderabad with fee ielts coaching institutes in Hyderabad| ielts coaching jobs in Hyderabad| ielts coaching price in hyderabad| ielts exam coaching centers in Hyderabad| ielts general coaching centers in Hyderabad| ielts general coaching in Hyderabad| ielts general training coaching in Hyderabad| ielts idp coaching in Hyderabad| ielts in hyderabad dates| ielts in hyderabad india| ielts in hyderabad sindh| ielts online coaching in Hyderabad| ielts preparation in hyderabad sindh| ielts training dilsukhnagar Hyderabad| ielts training hyderabad india| ielts training in kphb Hyderabad| ielts training institute Hyderabad| jeevas ielts coaching centers in Hyderabad| list of ielts coaching centres in Hyderabad| list of ielts coaching classes in Hyderabad| princeton ielts coaching in Hyderabad| top 10 ielts coaching centers in Hyderabad| top 10 ielts coaching centres in Hyderabad| top 10 ielts coaching in Hyderabad| top ielts coaching centres in Hyderabad| top ielts coaching in Hyderabad| top institutes for ielts coaching in Hyderabad| visu ielts coaching centers in Hyderabad| visu ielts coaching in Hyderabad academic writing practice ielts free download| canada visa ielts free practice tests| download free ielts practice books| download free ielts practice test plus| download free ielts practice test plus 2| download free ielts practice test reading| free cambridge ielts practice materials| free download barron's ielts practice exams| free download official ielts practice materials| free general ielts practice course| free ielts full practice test| free ielts general listening practice test| free ielts general module practice test| free ielts general practice material| free ielts general practice test download| free ielts general writing practice| free ielts general writing practice test| free ielts grammar practice test| free ielts listening exam practice| free ielts listening practice 2014| free ielts listening practice examples| free ielts listening practice material| free ielts listening practice test 2011| free ielts listening practice test 2012| free ielts listening practice test general training| free ielts listening practice test pdf| free ielts listening practice videos| free ielts official practice materials| free ielts practice activities and resources| free ielts practice Australia| free ielts practice book pdf| free ielts practice british council| free ielts practice Canada| free ielts practice exercises| free ielts practice for general training| free ielts practice for writing| free ielts practice general module| free ielts practice general reading test| free ielts practice guides and advice| free ielts practice lessons| free ielts practice material online| free ielts practice online| free ielts practice reading material| free ielts practice resources| free ielts practice software| free ielts practice software download| free ielts practice test 2011| free ielts practice test 2012| free ielts practice test 2014| free ielts practice test books| free ielts practice test uts| free ielts practice test video| free ielts practice tests 2013| free ielts practice websites| free ielts practice writing topics| free ielts practice youtube| free ielts reading practice pdf| free ielts reading practice test download| free ielts reading practice test general training| free ielts reading practice test online| free ielts reading practice test pdf| free ielts reading practice test with answers| free ielts reading practice test with answers pdf.| free ielts speaking practice online| free ielts speaking practice software| free ielts speaking practice video| free ielts vocabulary practice| free ielts writing practice pdf download| free ielts writing practice test general| free ielts writing task 1 practice| free official ielts practice materials| free online ielts practice course| free pdf for ielts practice test| free practice ielts general exam| free practice material for ielts| free practice of ielts listening| free practice test for ielts reading| general ielts free practice| general ielts free practice tests| general reading ielts free practice tests| general training ielts free practice tests| ielts academic exam practice free| ielts blog free practice| ielts essentials free practice tests| ielts free cambridge practice tests| ielts free cambridge practice tests download| ielts free download practice material| ielts free download practice test| ielts free listening practice download| ielts free listening practice samples| ielts free listening practice test with answers| ielts free online practice listening tests| ielts free online practice materials| ielts free practice academic tests| ielts free practice book| ielts free practice books download| ielts free practice course| ielts free practice download| ielts free practice exams| ielts free practice for Australia| ielts free practice general test| ielts free practice listening| ielts free practice listening test download| ielts free practice listening tests online| ielts free practice material| ielts free practice material academic| ielts free practice material download| ielts free practice material for general| ielts free practice materials download| ielts free practice online| ielts free practice papers| ielts free practice pdf| ielts free practice questions| ielts free practice reading| ielts free practice set| ielts free practice speaking| ielts free practice test| ielts free practice test for listening| ielts free practice test free download| ielts free practice test general training| ielts free practice test idp| ielts free practice test listening| ielts free practice test pdf| ielts free practice test reading| ielts free practice test speaking| ielt s free practice tests academic Canada| ielts free practice tests academic listening| ielts free practice tests academic online| ielts free practice tests academic pdf| ielts free practice tests academic reading| ielts free practice tests general| ielts free practice tests general training| ielts free practice tests with answer key| ielts free practice videos| ielts free practice writing test| ielts free practice zone| ielts free practise videos| ielts free reading practice tests general| ielts free review practice| ielts free sample practice test| ielts free writing practice| ielts free writing practice sample| ielts listening practice free youtube| ielts practice books free download| ielts practice books free download pdf| ielts practice cd free download| ielts practice materials 2 free download| ielts practice materials 2012 free download| ielts practice materials free download pdf| ielts practice now free download| ielts practice online free uk| ielts practice plus 2 free download| ielts practice plus 3 free download| ielts practice software exe free download| ielts practice test 2012 free download| ielts practice test 6 free download| ielts practice test 8 free download| ielts practice test academic free download| ielts practice test book free download| ielts practice test free download pdf| ielts practice test software free download| ielts practice video free download| reading comprehension free ielts practice test| www.free ielts practice materials| www.ielts free practice.com|